Finally, A Turf Block Driveway With Thriving Turf!

Rarely have I seen a successful turf block driveway.  Turf block, turf stone, turf pavers are systems installed as living turf driveway alternatives.  The material provides structural support via plastic or concrete cells that are filled with a soil media for turf installation.  The block is designed to support vehicular traffic on driveways while providing a green alternative to concrete or asphalt driveways.

Turf blocks have been used for decades, but rarely have I seen thriving  turf grass within the block.  Not because of the product, but usually due to turf establishment and failure issues.  Due to reduced soil root area, soil compaction, irrigation infiltration and damaged soil structure result in poor turf establishment.  Soil preparation, drainage and proper irrigation coverage and operation are required to grow turf inside of a turf block system.

Lastly, using vigorous, warm season turf grasses that spread by horizontal solons, rhizomes, and rooting improves the successful establishment of turf grass, such as the Tiff hybrid Bermuda grasses developed for sports fields. Cool season turfs including rye, bluegrass and turf type fescues are clumping turfs that do not spread horizontally, thereby limiting establishment and healthy growth.  Cool season grasses are more susceptible to leaf and soil borne diseases, are easily stressed during hot summer months, nor are they tolerant of vehicular and pedestrian traffic and compaction conditions.  

Tiff hybrid Bermuda is well established within the turf block

Trip, Slip and Fall Hazard: Hidden Depressions in Grade

Successful landscapes require:

  • Proper grading, drainage and amended soil.
  • An automatic irrigation system achieving 100% head to head coverage.
  • Properly installed, high quality plant material.

Each of these functions may require a specific type component, installed at a specific height or location to reduce the potential of creating a site hazard that may result in an accident.  In commercial applications, landscape plans usually include details and specifications dictating type of product and how it should be installed.

Many common landscape products may be improperly installed including:

  • Pop up heads may be incorrectly set to grade against a sidewalk.
  • Valve or drainage boxes set too high or low relative to finish grade.
  • Shrub head installed on a riser adjacent to concrete improvement.
  • Hidden, obscured depressions in grade due to substandard compaction, settlement and subsidence.

    Drainage box set too low.

Improper product selection or substandard installation practices may appear obvious.  A pop up sprinkler head set above the top of  adjacent concrete sidewalk creates a trip hazard.  A drainage structure set well below the turf grade creates a trip slip and fall hazard.  Selecting and installing a spray head on a rigid riser next to a pedestrian sidewalk is a sub-standard industry practice that creates a trip and fall hazard.

Spray head on a riser next to a sidewalk creates a trip hazard.

Not all landscape hazards are visible.  Turf areas may have grade depressions or holes that are hidden by overgrown turf grass.  Depending on the cause and time period, turf grass may completely hide the depth, location and size of the depression or hole, creating a hidden hazard.

A depression, rut or hole may result from several factors.  Repeated mowing on saturated turf may  create ruts.  Overwatering may cause irrigation or utility trench settlement.  A dead tree removed from a turf area may result in a future depression if the grade is not properly backfilled and compacted.

A seven inch deep hole hidden by turf grass.

Bermuda grass is a fast horizontal spreading turf-grass used in parks and recreation facilities throughout the country.  Unless regularly aerated and de-thatched, Bermuda grass in known to grow a  thick layer of thatch.  Over time, the thatch layer can increase the turf grade several inches above adjacent sidewalk and curbs.

The backfill in utility trenches installed across pre-existing turf may settle, creating a depression in the sub-grade.  The photo depicts the edge of a trench cut across an asphalt driveway, across a turf area.  The trench backfill eventually settled, creating a trench sub-grade depression hidden by the Bermuda grass.

Thatch, hidden depression and sanded turf.

The depression resulted in a trip and fall accident.  After the accident, several hidden turf depressions were “sanded” to fill  depressions to proper grade.

Not all landscape hazards are open and obvious.  Even a perfectly installed landscape may develop hazardous conditions if not regularly inspected and maintained.

Irrigation systems should be monitored, inspected, tested and adjusted monthly.  Turf should be trimmed around utility boxes and vaults regularly, aerated and de-thatched annually to maintain optimum performance and minimize grade changes.  Drainage structures should be grade adjusted, repaired or replaced when damaged.  Valve, electrical and junction boxes should be monitored for grade changes and adjusted as required.  Bark mulch thickness should be monitored and supplemented annually to maintain proper coverage and grade.

In summary, a properly installed landscape is composed of several systems and components that require regular ongoing maintenance for optimum performance, efficiency and safety.  Pro-active landscape maintenance may reduce potential hazards, resultant accidents and lawsuits.  These actions demonstrates an Owner’s recognition of protecting the health and safety of the public, pedestrians, friends and family who may visit and use the site and may prove useful in a legal action.

A Horticulturists Local Neighborhood Walk

I took my usual walk through local neighborhoods surrounding Balboa Park in San Diego.  A glorious spring day, I couldn’t help but marvel at the beautiful ornamental landscape trees, shrubs and vines in bloom everywhere!  Very uplifting, glad plants are not affected by the virus!

Old Growth Redwood Destruction Continues

I read an L.A. Times article discussing ongoing logging of redwoods in Humboldt County.  In a battle spanning several generations, tree sitters and eco-activists are putting their bodies on limbs in redwood tree tops to prevent logging.

This is not the first time tree activists have climbed hundreds of feet up old growth redwoods to prevent logging the tree and surrounding trees.  It reminded me of a remarkable novel I read called “The Overstory” by Richard Powers.  The novel is about people and their interaction with and the affect specific trees and forests.

It primarily focuses on loss of old growth redwoods and firs in the pacific northwest and activists actions to prevent tree and habitat loss.  However, the novel was historical, taking place several decades ago.  Yet it appears old growth logging in Humboldt county continues to in present.

I recently visited, camped and explored the Jedediah Smith State and National Redwood park, not far from where present day logging takes place.  For me, the thought of logging off trees that are hundreds to over a thousand year old is difficult to accept.

We have commercial redwood farms for harvesting lumber.  Of course, it does not possess the grain, size, color and characteristics of true old growth redwood trees.  If we want future generations to be able to view and experience the incredible creation of a true, old growth tree, we MUST stop logging and preserve this resource.

The Benefits of the ANSI A300 Tree Care Standards for Tree Related Lawsuits

Guy + Chainsaw – Tree = Potential Lawsuit vs
ANSI A300 Tree Care Performance Standards

Does he know what he is doing?

Does he know what he is doing?

Background

Tree care professionals contracting for services are frequently members of the Tree Care Industry Association, (TCIA). The International Society of Arboriculture, (ISA), administers various types of arborist certification programs, including certified arborist or certified tree worker climber. The American Society of Consulting Arborist  offers arborists training and testing to become a registered consulting arborist, (RCA). These associations provide industry standards and best management practices for members to adopt into in their own practice.

Note the personal protective clothing, ropes, saddle etc.

Personal protective clothing, ropes, saddle etc.

In California, C-27 landscape contractors and D-49 tree service contractors are licensed by the state, both can legally perform tree care service. Prior to 1991, various industry associations, contractors and practitioners followed their own standards for tree care.

The industry recognized the need for a standardized, scientific approach and agreed to develop an official American National Standard, resulting in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A300 Tree Shrub, and Other Woody Plant Management Operations – Standard Practices.

They are voluntary industry consensus standards developed by TCIA and written by the Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) A300, whose mission is to develop consensus performance standards based on current research and sound practices for writing specifications to manage trees, shrubs, and other woody plants.

The ISA and ASCA are members of the ASC and their member practices should conform to the ANSI A300 tree care performance standards. The standards “apply to professionals who provide for, or supervise the management of trees, shrubs, and other woodsy landscape plants. Intended users include businesses, government agencies, property owners, property managers and utilities.” Many municipalities have adopted the ANSI A300 performance standards as part of their tree and landscape maintenance ordinance. The A300 standards are separated into 10 parts based on the tree care practice.

ANSI A300 Performance Standards for Legal Conflict Support

Arboriculture professionals adhere to the ANSI A300 performance standards for developing specifications for tree care. Gardeners, landscapers, designers, and handy men are not certified arborists and rarely have knowledge of industry standards. Even licensed landscape architects, civil engineers, general and landscape contractors may not be familiar with or have knowledge of the A300 standards. Ignorance of the standards is not a legal excuse for violating or ingnoring the standards.

The standards are separated into ten different parts. Through case experience, I have found three of the ANSI A300 standards applicable for plaintiff or defendant tree related legal actions. In conflicts I’ve been involved with, the civil engineer, landscape architects, general contractor, landscape and sub-contractors and even licensed tree care companies were not aware of the A300 standards. In some instances, industry professionals were aware of the standards but failed to adhere to the them.

Without proper planning and management, construction and development projects adjacent to existing trees commonly damage tree roots, trunks and limbs, increasing the risk of a potential tree failure and resultant lawsuit. ANSI A300 (Part 5) Standard Practices (Management of Trees and Shrubs During Site Planning, Site Development, and Construction) is the recognized industry standard for managing trees during construction and is the focus of this discussion.

The A300 Part 5 Performance Standard is intended for use for industry professionals, including all levels of government agencies, private entities including commercial, industrial and residential property owners and managers, engineers, architects and utilities for developing written specifications. The standards apply to any person or entity engaged in the management of trees, shrubs or other woody plants.

ANSI A300 Part 5 standard

ANSI A300 Part 5 standard

Without specifications for tree protection during construction and development, tree injuries occur. Depending on the severity of the injury, the defect may degrade the structural integrity of the tree. Over time, the injury may continue to decay, increasing the risk of failure and resultant damage to people and or property. The reason for the standard is to assess the level of risk and to provide information for risk mitigation.

Civil engineers, landscape architects and other professionals responsible for developing plans and specifications should be aware of the A300 standards. These professionals may not have the tree knowledge expertise, which is why the standard refers professionals to use a certified arborist qualified in tree management during site planning, development and construction.

The standard discusses implementation procedures that should be designed by a professional arborist including:
• Tree management plans in compliance with applicable ordinances and standards.
• Decision making should be based on the knowledge of health and safety of the tree resources present.
• Prime consultant and contractor should involve the arborist in the initial planning phases.
• Arborist site monitoring during construction should be specified to ensure compliance with plan requirement.
• Monitoring specifications should address demolition, grading, vertical construction, walks and pathways, playgrounds, excavations, trenching, drainage systems, and landscape.

For safety, the standard requires only arborists familiar with the standards, practices and hazards of arboriculture shall perform tree management. One of the objectives of the standard it to avoid damaging trees during construction; including damage caused by physical contact, grade changes and soil compaction. To achieve the defined objectives on any project, the arborist should be involved in the management of trees during all five phases of development including:
• Planning
• Design
• Pre-construction
• Construction
• Post-construction

Development and construction projects are complex, requiring planning and coordination among project shareholders. The prime consultant and or contractor should maintain arborist involvement throughout the various phases of the project in conjunction with the arborist developing specifications, resource assessment, conservation plans, monitoring and recommendations. The TCIA website has an exhibit of a Tree management plan flow chart defining what should occur during the development phases, arborist responsibility and development activity.

How the A300 Standard Applies in a Legal Context

The standard applies to all design and planning professionals such as civil engineers and landscape architects. These firms usually work as prime consultants and are responsible for producing the plans and specifications for development projects. They are responsible for knowing and adhering to the A300 performance standards. The same applies to prime contractors and their sub-contractors, and other project stakeholders.

Failing adherence to the A300 standards renders prime consultant(s), general and sub-consultants potentially liable if a tree related accident occurs. I used the A300 standard in a case involving a tree limb that fell from a tree onto an adjacent tot-lot.

A city decided to build a park within a former old growth forest. A civil engineer and landscape architect developed plans and specifications, including a grading plan with notes and a detail for tree protection. The general contractor, grading, and recreation equipment sub-contractors constructed the park. The design included a tot-lot with children play equipment built where trees were removed, with old, construction damaged trees remaining left intact at the edge of the tot-lot.

A few days after the park opened, a tree limb dropped onto the tot-lot, striking and killing a young child seated on a piece of play equipment. The parents sued the city, the design consultants and all the contractors because the defendants did not observe the city tree ordinance. The city ordinance adopted the A300 tree care standards as part of their tree ordinance, which the defendants ignored, arguing the standard did not apply to their trade(s). After extensive deposition testimony, using the standards in support of the Plaintiffs (parents of the deceased child), all the defendants settled rather than proceeding with a trial.

In another case, a property owner agreed to allow a guy to prune a tree. The guy claimed to have forestry experience. He had a rope tied around a limb that he cut just as a neighbor walked out of their house. The limb dropped, rebounded at the end of the rope causing it to swing and strike the neighbor in the face. In the resulting lawsuit, the A300 standards were used to support the plaintiff complaint with a resultant settlement from the insurer.

The A300 standards apply to tree care companies, certified and consulting arborists. Different standards may apply depending on the case. For example, A300 (Part 9), Tree Risk Assessment A. Tree Failure, provides performance standards for tree risk assessment and guidelines for establishing written specification and best management practices, (BMP).

As a certified and registered consulting arborist, tree risk assessment inspections and reports are consulting services I provide, I’ve incorporated this and other standards into my practice.  Tree care contractors might find other standards, such A300 (Part 1) Pruning, Part 5 (previously discussed) and Part 9 particularly applicable to their business.

In conclusion, the ANSI A300 Tree, Shrub, and Other Woody Plant Management Performance Standards are a powerful tool that may benefit a plaintiff or defendant involved in a tree related accident. The standards are broad reaching in scope and application to a wide variety of construction and development professionals. Attorneys and insures should consider the potential application of A300 performance standards in tree related cases.

Once Again, Fires Threaten Giant Sequoias

The Railroad fire broke out near Yosemite on August 29.  Recent humid, cooler weather has assisted fire crews achieve 43% containment, with 12,000 acre scorched.  However, dryer conditions are expected today, with the possibility of lightening strikes.

The fire is burning in an area of dry pine and cedar trees, creating difficult firefighting conditions.  Tuesday, the fire burned through Nelder Grove, containing over 100 mature giant sequoias.  Fortunately, the extremely thick bark protected the trees from damage, while all the under brush was burned.

Hopefully, firefighting crews can get the upper hand on the fire and prevent further damage.

Railroad Fire Threatens Giant Sequoias

Spring Madness

The beauty of spring is all around us, take a moment to enjoy it.  Take a walk through any of our coastal canyons, parks and open spaces.  You’ll be rewarded!

Not a field of poppies but still...

Not a field of poppies but still…

Wow

Wow

Get out there!

Get out there!

One of the Best Flowering Trees!

Back in my college days at Cal Poly Pomona, I took several plant identification courses as part of the educational requirements for Ornamental Horticulture.  Two trees from the same genus always stood out for their outstanding floral display and landscape use.  Back then, the genus was called Tabebuia, since changed to Handroanthus. The two useful landscape species are Handroanthus impetiginosa,(Pink trumpet tree) and H. chrysotrichus, (Golden trumpet tree).

The Pink trumpet tree in full bloom

While taking a walk, I came across a beautiful pink trumpet tree in full bloom.  I then started noticing a few other trumpet trees scattered about the neighborhoods in North Park.  I’m not to sure why, but in my view, this species is an under utilized ornamental landscape tree.  Perhaps due to a slow growth rate, medium appetite for water or its deciduous nature, the species is not heavily promoted by the nursery industry.  But it has many beneficial characteristics making it a useful ornamental landscape tree.

The pink trumpet tree requires full sunlight to part shade and grows to approximately 25-feet in height in Southern California.  The non-aggressive rooting system makes it a good choice for use in smaller confined planter areas such as a parkway strip.  It performs well in the urban environment.  Like most trees, it prefers well drained fertile soils however I see this tree flourishing under less than ideal conditions.  No noted pests or disease, hardy to 24º F, damaged below 18º F.  After spring flowering, it grows a green to brown colored pod.

A close relative to the pink trumpet tree but faster growing

A close relative to the pink trumpet tree but faster growing.  By M.Ritter, W. Mark, J. Reimer, C. Stubler

Unlike the pink trumpet tree, the closely relate golden trumpet tree is a more rapid, larger growing tree.  It too is deciduous, and like the pink trumpet, it flowers in the spring with an impressive display of brilliant, fragrant yellow trumpet flowers.

This tree grows to a larger size than the pink trumpet, up to 50-feet tall and similar width.  It has a spreading, low canopy that matures into a broad, round-headed or vase shaped crown.  It prefers full sun to part shade.

Branch strength is rated as medium to somewhat weak and root growth is more aggressive than the pink trumpet.  Unlike the pink trumpet, the golden trumpet tree should not be used in a confined planter are.

Both these trees perform well in our mediterranean climate and their different growth characteristics allow for varied use,  one in more confined areas, the other requires more room to grow.  Once established, both are relatively drought tolerant.

Hope you find this helpful, let me know if you have any questions!

 

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Cactus and Succulent Blooming at Balboa Park

A blooming hidden garden at Balboa Park

Blooming agave in a less visited area of the park

Blooming agave in a less visited area of the park

Such a gorgeous spring day, had to go for a walk through Morley Field and Balboa Park. I knew it would be a busy day with lots of people seeking the beauty and sunshine at the park, so I decided to walk through some of the less visited areas of the park in search of plants.

When your a horticulturist, arborist, landscape contractor and avid gardener, it is kind of a curse and a blessing. I cannot help but be drawn to looking at trees, shrubs, landscape design and contrasting plant foliage and flower colors.

I took a bunch of pictures, some might seem more obscure or leave you wondering what the heck that plant is! Take a moment and enjoy!
Cactus, succulents and natives at Balboa Park

Botanical Skills by Matt Ritter, Ph.D, A Great Workshop!

With the intent to continually learn new information, stay up on new industry trends, laws and practices, I attend lots of seminars, workshops and continuing education courses. Most of the seminars have been informative and useful, and for the most part, the speakers have been entertaining in presenting their material.

Lets face it, learning new information is not always fascinating or interesting, especially when the topic is technical in nature. Or, the topic might be informative but the speaker might not have the best oratory skills to keep one fully involved and listening or absorbing the message.

When I attend an industry seminar, my intent is not only to learn new information, but to hopefully gain knowledge and facts that I can integrate into my consulting practice. Typically, I manage to come away with a tidbit or two that I might be able to incorporate into my practice, sometimes more, sometimes less. After all, when a seminar is advertised, it usually comes with a schedule of speakers throughout the day, and a brief line or two about what they will present during their allotted time slot. From that brief description, you make your decision whether the speaker and seminar is worth attending.

About a year ago, I got word of seminar about Eucalyptus tree identification, taught by Matt Ritter, Ph. D., a professor of Botany at California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo. Colleagues told me to not miss the opportunity to attend the seminar because Matt was an incredible, knowledgeable, and entertaining speaker and I would learn a great deal of information.

So, I signed up and attended the seminar, it was in San Diego at Balboa Park. I was astounded, blown away and extremely impressed by Matt. He presented Eucalyptus tree history, biology and identification in an easy to understand, creative and entertaining manner. He provided handouts, identification keys and practical, useful information I incorporated into my practice immediately and continue to use frequently.

About a month ago, I received an email informing me Matt would be teaching a one day workshop in botanical skills and tree identification in San Diego at Palomar College in San Marcos. I signed up immediately and attended the seminar yesterday. WOW!! Once again Matt provided a powerful workshop discussing a wide range of topics including an introduction into the history of scientific and common plant names, botanical nomenclature, how plants get their names, why plant names change, plant morphology, keys, and identification. We had mini workshops and quizzes, worked outdoors practicing tree identification using keys designed by Matt, learned online resources for plant identification, names and inventories. It was an action packed, informative, practical seminar that was presented in simple, basic terminology we could all understand.

You can really get a sense of Matt’s love of botany, trees, and plants and his enjoyment at teaching and sharing his knowledge and experience. He provides manuals and handouts that are useful, practical documents that I put to use immediately in my consulting practice. He is accessible and willing to share his information rather that horde it and not allow others to use the information he teaches, a trait not often seen in other university educators. How many speakers do you know who encourage you to contact him or her concerning tree and plant issues or tell you it is okay to take his printed information and teach it to others?

In closing, just wanted to thank Matt for providing such a great learning environment. If you are interested in trees and plants, whether a student, consultant, arborist, horticulturist, landscape architect, agency or park representative, you owe it to yourself to attend one of his seminars. You won’t be disappointed. Visit his website at Matt Ritter Website